Time-of-Flight Diffraction (ToFD)

The importance of welding in structures across all sectors of industry can't be overstated. Determining the quality of welds is often vital to the longevity and profitability of structures. Time-of-Flight Diffraction (TOFD) is an advanced NDT inspection method which is widely used for weld testing. Although not exclusively used for welds, it is very effective in detecting defects such as cracks, lack of fusion and slag inclusion.

ToFD is an innovation of ultrasonic testing which uses two probes. One probe sends the ultrasound and the other one is used as a receiver. Instead of recording the ultrasound that is reflected by defects, it detects diffraction of sound waves that emanate from the tips of a defect. ToFD inspection provides accurate information about the length and height of defects. Unlike other testing methods, ToFD can detect flaws regardless of their orientation. 

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Advantages of Time-of-Flight Diffraction:

  • Suitable for wide range of materials including plastics such as HDPE
  • On stream inspection at temperatures exceeding 400°C
  • Applicable on material thicknesses from 5 to 200 millimetres
  • No harmful ionising radiation
  • No need to interrupt production
  • High Probability of Detection (POD)
  • Exact information about indication length and depth
  • Inspection data represented visually
  • Direct interpretation of results
  • Inspection data available in digital format

Henk Schroots

Area Sales Manager NDT & Laboratory

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